Causes And Effects Of Bullying Research Proposal

Published: 2021-06-18 07:10:04
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Abstract
Bullying in schools is an overall issue that can have negative results for the general school atmosphere and for the right of students to learn in a safe environment. Bullying can also have negative long lasting results both for students who harass and those being harassed. A great part of the formal research on bullying has occurred in the America and other parts of the world. The issues connected with bullying have been noted and deeply discussed about wherever formal educating situations exist. Bullying involves immediate practices, for example, teasing, insulting, undermining, hitting, and abuse fellow students. Furthermore, bullying may also be more dangerous since it leads to a segregation of students in the same school. It should be noted that, boys are the major causative of bullying in school environment. Girls are not normally involved in bullying activities compared to boys. Girls may, however, spread gossipy tidbits and implement social seclusion. Bullying may be direct or indirect basing upon a given situation. The key part of bullying is that the physical or mental intimidation happens more than once especially in a school environment.
Introduction
Bullying refers to a repeated verbal, physical, social or mental forceful conduct by an individual or group regulated towards a weak person or group that plans to cause violence, misery or harm. Bullying has two key parts, which are repeated destructive acts and a unequal balance of power. It includes repeated physical, verbal or mental assaults or intimidation administered against a weak person who cannot appropriately defend him or herself in terms of quality, or because the fact that a weak person is dwarfed or less mentally strong. Bullying includes aspects such as ambush, tormenting, intimidation, gossip spreading and segregation, demands for cash, annihilation of property, and verbally abusing. In the United States, a few school practices are perceived as manifestations of bullying. Such involve inappropriate behavior in line with sex (Baldry& Farrington, 2000).
As far as the sociological investigation of bullying is concerned, the most issue that has been discovered so far is that tormenting is generally predominant among students. In a respect of human science, a wide pervasiveness of an issue is viewed as an issue. It is an issue that has been difficult to solve for so many years. In case it was a structural issue, there could be a point of confinement to what people can do to solve it and avoid any further life inconvenience. This could be a key solution to all schools in America and United Kingdom. It could also be a key of social structure. In a respect of the degree of predominance of the issue, the structural viewpoint seems to be ineffective in line with bullying.
I n modern schools, there are several cases of bullying, the best example being the case of two girls who bullied a 12 year old girl resulting to her death. The bullying in this case was stalk bullying, which made the 12 year old girl jump off an abandoned building. However, the main problem in the modern society is that some of these cases go unsolved, this being the best case example. Despite one of the suspects claiming that she did not care about whether the girl committed suicide through her Face book profile, the girls were sent free. This signifies the kind of world we are living in, where most cases of bullyingaregone unpunished
There are common characteristics in schools as well as institutions. This gives the structure several alternatives when dealing with bullying in schools. Schools are not bullying in nature, but there is dictatorship, and boys are always aggressive and cause hostility. Moreover, bullying is especially prone to be an issue in social groups with ineffective rules and low supervision, for example, the military, jails, and more importantly schools. The aspect of bullying has been characterized as unacceptable conduct in schools. Bullying is a result of the structure and association of schools themselves. It should be noted that, schools are formed in dictatorial structures that incorporate accusing, reformatory, and disciplinary issues. Some of the schools use animosity, power, and control. They are very strict and aggressive. A student is not allowed to defend himself in such schools. This research is quantitative in nature.
Findings from Other Research Works
The research on problematic conduct among students, which was conducted by the mid-l980s, had scarcely tended to bullying. It proposes, on the other hand, that certain parts of school are liable to cause bullying among students. The introductory accentuation of the research in line with bullying was to raise the major reasons that lead to bullying conduct. During research quantities of a study, it is presumed that issues of conduct are immovably situated within the social setting of the school. In addition, school ethos is a major contributing impact on student conduct. There are so many steps introduced and still in process to solve bullying in school. The major objective is to enhance the entire school ethos by assessing educational program to improve students’ behaviors. They also enhance interpersonal skills among teachers and the nature of collaboration between students and staff (Wolke, Woods, Stanford, & Schultz, 2001).
In the previous years, researchers discussed about the issue of bullying among students. During that time, students mentioned a number of school-related factors that are believed to be causes of bullying. However, a high pervasiveness of a nature of bullying can be recognized through high bullying schools and low bullying schools. It is worth noting that, vulnerability and aversion from teachers may help to reduce bullying in schools. Moreover, schools with experienced teachers who understand how to handle bullying actions may express their perspectives on students and evade or reduce bullying. Bullying takes place in a successful school. Bullying is not a common factor to schools, which are characterized with great performance of students. In such schools, there are principles and set standards that shape behaviors of students in order to make sure bullying cases do not take place.
Literature Review
The dependent variable is identification of bullying. First and foremost, bullying is a kind of forceful conduct dispensed by an individual or group to cause harm to a weak person. It is the ill-use of force to demand for something without following legal regulations. Bullying is physical, mental or social. The relationships between a teacher and student could also be an issue that causes bullying in school. The potential for the conduct of a teacher to be a model for students has been well discussed in this paper (Hanish& Guerra, 2002). Students may respect the viable, violent teacher and use him or her as a scapegoat to torment other students. In addition, teachers who are either excessively strict or not able to control students in the classroom could allow students to take over a school, which may prompt an increase in bullying. A few teachers might deliberately lead students into bullying. A teacher's negative factor is a major contributing factor to students' bullying actions. The utilization of strict rules or principles by teachers or staff might also be contributing factors towards bullying. Furthermore, there is no any study that discusses a relationship between a teacher and student in order to reduce bullying activities in a given school.
The Independent variable the experiment is education on bullying. The ineffective attention paid to the school setting in line with bullying is a contributing factor to an occurrence of bullying actions in school. Most mediation projects managing forceful conduct have concentrated on changing the attributes unconventional to at risk understudies and have neglected to address the bigger social relationship. Members of the school setting should be well addressed on the ways they can deal with a situation and evade bullying activities. Students who are casualties of bullying are normally on edge, unreliable, mindful, and experience the ill effects of low respect toward oneself. They find themselves very uncomfortable in a school environment. They may need social skills and friends. Students may avoid going to school since home appears to be a safer place. Bullied students have a tendency to be near their parents and may have babysitters who can fight a situation and protect them from being bullied. The major characteristic of bullied students is that they have a tendency to be physically weaker than their friends. They may be weak in terms of size, weight and energy.
The experiment
The experiment will be quantitative in nature. This type of research allows one to understand the major elements of a given issue, as in this case, bullying. Quantitative research on causes and effects of will also allow for the emancipation of the extent to which bullying cases have gone in relation to the society(Hanish& Guerra, 2002). The experiment will incorporate a questionnaire on bullying that will be distributed to 10 students ages 12-18. This age bracket represents people who are always vulnerable to the effects of bullying in society. After the questionnaire is done, the 10 students will be split up into 2 groups. The groups will present an easy scenario for management and control. They will also have independent answers in line with the effects and cause of bullying. One group will be shown an educational video on bullying that discusses the types of bullying, what it looks like, and how it can be prevented. Then, both groups will watch separately an acted out scenario of bullying, where the students in the group will have to tell me if what they are watching is considered bullying and show me how they would approach the situation (intervene). The responses are expected to be stemmed from what the audience has faced before in line with the video. I would then ask them what school administration can do to prevent bullying from occurring. This last step will ensure that I get pertinent information in line with how bullying has stamped root in the society, especially the school setting.
Bullying regularly happens where grown-up supervision is low or not available. There is an opposite relationship between the quantity of regulating students present and the quantity of bullied individual. The outline of less-managed areas can lead to chances of bullying. For example, bullying happens in a school when students are in line for food or sports. Bullying is not easy to be controlled and need a very close supervision. Various studies have discovered that harassing likewise happens in classrooms and on school transports. There are times when bullying takes place in corridors as well. In a respect of research, one may find that in specific classrooms, bullying flourishes, and in others, it is uncommon.
Studies by Arsenio &Lemerise (2004), agree that bullies have a tendency to be forceful, overwhelming and also underneath normal in discernment and reading capacity. Most proof recommends that bullies are at any rate of normal prominence. The conviction that bullies are frail, where it counts is most likely mistaken. Bullies do not seem to have much sympathy for their victimized people. Adolescent bullies have a tendency to remain bullies, without suitable intercession. Juvenile bullies have a tendency to advance and on the later have a tendency to affect children who will also become bullies. In one study in which analysts carried out research regarding bullies, they found that adolescent who was bullies at fourteen had a tendency to have children who were bullies at thirty. This proposes an intergenerational connection. They also found that bullies have a few similitudes with different types of wrongdoers. Bullies have a tendency to be drawn lopsidedly from lower financial status families with poor income raising procedures. These have a tendency to be imprudent, and have a tendency to be unsuccessful in school.
Research conductedby Baldry& Farrington (2000) show that bullying at school keeps on increasing, and this could be an issue because of lacking sociological perspective. The clarification regarding why a few students bully others has been analyzed basically within the individual traits of the bully and the bullied person. In addition, schools are the only spot where bullying actions mostly take place. School bullying actions are associated with the pervasiveness of bullying have been under-researched. Moreover, schools have been liable to extraordinary research. By exploring the research on bullying, this paper examines solutions or factors that seem to help the school atmosphere in which bullying among students becomes ordinary. This paper suggests the standard of student bullying needs to be reconsidered. There should be solutions to solve bullying actions in schools.
Bullying and tormenting of school students is a moderately new problem, regardless of the expansive number of studies presently accessible. Indeed in Norway where strictly rules exist, it was not until 1981 when three students died in cold blood and other injured following bullying actions (Hazler, Miller, Carney & Green, 2001). This was initially distinguished as a social issue. On the later, sixteen students were also killed following same reasons of bullying. This was caused by the lack of principles and rules to control a situation. In the UK, a certain book was produced in line with bullying in school in order to address students and teachers over effects of bullying. The circumstances were pretty much the same in different parts of Europe. A number of countries followed this example since they already produced books that discusses over bullying actions in schools.
The results of study conducted by Ttofi& Farrington (2008) on bullying are reflected to some degree. Such include teacher initiatives, and entire school against bullying acts. They incorporate reassessment of school administration and human relationships in school from the perspective of Equal Opportunity. The entire staff developmental methodology to assemble positive human connections outfitted towards understanding and perseverance. It is believed that such efforts have helped to create positive students relationships, which definitely had an effect upon the educational module, the way they were delivered and its objectives (Wang, Iannotti&Nansel, 2009).
A study conducted by show that schools can play a vital role in evading bullying in the public eye. They have an ability to solve a current situation and make it even better. Through the plan appraisal of the concealed educational program and philosophy, schools can all be operators for social change. The sociological point of view of bullying as analyzed before has been amazingly ineffective. It has failed to stoop bullying actions in schools. Fights in schools have still been taking place despite the presence of such department. Besides, according to the circumstances in the UK by the early 1990s, a number of schools deny the fact that bullying exist in school. They do so in order to avoid 'emergency management' approach in school. The moment a school has accepted it, it will mean bullying actions exist in such schools. Thus, they can only adopt a "formative approach." As pointed out before, the investigation on relationship between bullying and school is truly ineffective. It has not gone much past investigation into such things as school size and area (Rigby, 2008).
Hypotheses
The desire of academic success is for the most part thought to be a cause that is related to bullying among students. There has been less clarification regarding how genuine this reason is. There is only small evidence that the desire to academic success builds the level of anxiety, which drives a few students into bullying conduct. There is still a need to conduct research on the same to figure real causes of bullying in schools.Academic boards pressurize students to perform and compete with one another can possibly be a source of bullying. Hypothetically speaking, there is no certain association between performance desires and bullying. Therefore, the reasons towards bullying are still unclear (Hanish& Guerra, 2002).
Clearly, bullying is barely a culmination of success demands. Indeed, since l990s media have been reporting bullying cases in schools. As a matter of fact, these schools did not real focus on performance, which is thought to be a reason of bullying in schools are only caused by students themselves, and probably their home structures. If there is an epistemological connection between academic success and bullying, with anxiety as the medium, it is important to realize different factors that may improve performance in a given school. There is no way a school administration may avoid to promote academic performance in a school to avoid bullying actions. There has to be an alternative solution to solve bullying or anxiety in schools.
It has been called attention to by a number of individuals that the nature of a relationship between a student and a teacher any reduce bullying habits in school. The relationship between a teacher and a student should be improved from a low level to a high level. It is worth noting that teachers themselves give the rationale of bullying and the atmosphere which favors bullying, and that 'they make the social environment which prompts bullying. Teachers have been a major cause of bullying actions in school following a lack of relationship between them and students. However, a relationship between students and their teachers has been recently improved in order to reduce bullying cases in schools (Wolke, Woods, Stanford, & Schultz, 2001).
Limitations and Future Research
There were a few limitations in this study. To begin with, it is hard to know the genuine reaction rate of this study as researchers were not able to decide what number of parents was given the review from their children. They also failed to determine what number of parents has experienced bullying cases of their children. Moreover, different variables that were not recognized in this study may have the capacity to record a percentage of the missing findings. Besides, a student's involvement in line with response to bullying cases could be a basic indicator that represents a part of the remaining change. Future scientists may develop this study to include more appraisals of locus of control, sympathy, point of view, anti-bullying, and parenting. This could help to make a more exhaustive model of foreseeing parent perspectives, level of concern, and responses to bullying conduct (Hazler, Miller, Carney & Green, 2001).
There are some points mentioned focusing on practices, which are normally carried out by a student and teachers. Their relationship would be viewed as harassing in another perspective. Teachers have been calling students’ names, which are real hurting. Students have been paying back to their fellow students in a respect of reducing anger. Thus, they end up bullying and torment other students by imitating their rude teachers. It has been found that ten percent of students in different levels at school schools have been harassed by their teachers regularly or once in a while. Furthermore, fifteen percent of the students in the overview reported that they had been bullied by teachers either regularly or once in a while have been quiet and keep it secret. There is no way a friend or school mates can bully one another. It is unrealistic to happen in a class where students feel that they have been bullied by teachers(Wolke, Woods, Stanford, & Schultz, 2001).
References
Arsenio, W. F., &Lemerise, E. A. (2004). Aggression and moral development: Integrating social informationprocessing and moral domains models. Child Development,75, 987–1002.
Baldry, A. C., & Farrington, D. P. (2000). Bullies and delinquents: Personal characteristics and parental styles. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 10, 17–31.
Hazler, R. J., Miller, D. L., Carney, J. V., & Green, S. (2001). Adult recognition of school bullying situations.Educational Research, 43, 133–146.
Hanish, L. D., & Guerra, N. G. (2002).A longitudinal analysis of patterns of adjustment following peer victimization.Development and Psychopathology, 14, 69–89.
Rigby, K. (2008). Children and bullying: How parents and educators can reduce bullying at school. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Triandis, H. C., &Suh, E. A. (2002). Cultural influences on personality. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 133–160.
Ttofi, M. M., & Farrington, D. P. (2008).Reintegrative shaming theory, moral emotions and bullying.Aggressive Behavior, 34, 352–368.
Wang, J., Iannotti, R. J., &Nansel, T. R. (2009). School bullying among adolescents in the United States: Physical, verbal,relational, and cyber. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45, 368–375.
Wolke, D., Woods, S., Stanford, K., & Schultz, H. (2001). Bullying and victimization of primary school children in England and Germany: Prevalence and school factors. British Journal of Psychology, 92, 673–696.
Woods, T., Coyle, K., Hoglund, W., &Leadbeater, B. (2007).Correlates of school victimization: Implications for prevention and intervention. In J. Zins, M. Elias, & C. Maher (Eds.), Bullying, victimization, and peer harassment: A handbookof prevention and intervention (pp. 339–388). Binghamton, NY: Routledge.

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