Githaka refers to an assemblage of land, which was owned by a sub clan (mbari). The members of the sub-clan were entitled to own portions of each clan’s githaka. The Kikuyu tribe of Kenya had a system of land holding based on the githaka. The githaka was hereditary passed on from one generation to another.The loss of a githaka was perceived as a birthright making its loss both an economic and political disaster to the clan.
Harry Thuku was one of the Kenyan politicians who pioneered development of the modern African nationalism in Kenya. He was a Kikuyu leader with many roles attributable to his literacy and good family background. He led the denouncement of the British colonial government in Kenya encouraging Africans to stand up for their rights. Through his Young Kikuyu Association party he managed to agitate for the liberation of Kenya. Even though his popularity eventually got him arrested, though released because of his supporters strike, and eventually exiled, his contribution to Kenyan independence cannot be ignored.
Also referred to as the maji maji war, the maji maji rebellion was a very violent resistance that took place in the modern day Tanzania.It is in this rebellion that the indigenous communities of German East Africa around the Great Lakes region waged against the Germans, with its outbreak beginning in 1905. This uprising to Tanganyika posed the most significant challenge to the colonial rule the British put up, two years and involving people numbering over 10 000 square miles. Although the rebellion may have been viewed to be ultimately unsuccessful, it forced the government in Berlin to put reforms in place in their African colonies. The colonial governments had ultimately realized firsthand the potential cost of brutality from these rebellions.
Diagne Blaise was the very first African elected person into the French national assembly, as well as the first to get a post to serve in the French government in colonial Senegal, and an African customs official. He participated in earning the people full citizenship into the four communes. He also concluded various commercial agreements with the French companies holding Senegalese business, and defended assimilation and forced labor proving to be a staunch supporter of the French rule in west Africa. He was vocal on the matters of economic exploitation, political discrimination, and social prejudice.
The Eleko dispute was brought about by the years of frustrations arising from the chronic disputes t between the people of Lagos and the government over the Eleko (the king) of Lagos. Lagos was then annexed under the treaty that incorporated the Eleko, whereby the eleko was given a stipend although no provisions were made for the heirs at the time. Eventually, the administration chose to depose the existing eleko and install another candidate.
The national congress of the said British West Africa was formed after the 1920 conference of the West African leaders. Its formation was well ahead of its time, even though it ended after it lost its chief. Its main purpose was to ensure it secured the greater economic, social, and political privileges for the people in the British West African territories.
The firestone agreements (1926-1927) occurred because of the economic development that was required in order to liquidate the expensive foreign loans searching for sources of getting natural labor. It is Harvey firestone who negotiated the concessions and hence the title, and this led to those interested in the firestone getting leases rights for 99 years. In return, the task of performing custom duties and paying rental fees fell upon firestone; these agreements did a whole lot to begin economic development.
In Uganda, the western missionaries transformed Buganda using imperialistic competition. Paternalism is the rule of land and the hierarchy. The implementation laws were left to the Africans. The economic expansion was due to crops like cotton. In Kenya, on the other hand, the land was not at its best, it was a wilderness. Its main characteristics were famine, conflict, and diseases. They used a lot of new technology and faced many diseases from the west with the European officials being in charge if implementing policy. Tanganyika, on the other hand, moved towards indigenous rule. The Germans then the British controlled it. In Zanzibar, the British supported Arab oligarchy, and this was the norm. The colonial rule turned and became more liberal after the World War II.
The French method of rule includes a French method of civilization that was shared by all the nations under the rule. Africans under its rule also had similar rights. Furthermore, their inland became under military rule, and this meant having harsher policies. They later encouraged association where the people retained their culture, but remained subservient. The rule was autocratic. The British maintained a tight hold. They had governors in different areas of the nations, and the customs were disregarded. The German colonies were distributed among the French and the British after the war as they left for Europe to regroup.
The origin of Pan African is the unity among the different members of the black race and the African leadership. Its leaders included Casely Hayford, who was a natural leader from the gold coast. W.E.R Du Bois joined a conference in Paris at the height of the pan African movement and emphasized on solidarity. Marcus Garvey was convicted of fraud, deported, and killed. Elaise Diagne supported the French colonial policy.
Liberia was instrumental in enhancing nationalism amongst various African states having not being colonized during the World War 1 period. It showed that indeed African states could grow and be sustained without foreign interference nor custodianship. This was integral in encouraging many African citizenries to take charge of their own affairs citing Liberia as an example.The problems that were faced include a weak economy and uncertainty of their sovereignty. Liberia lacked proper mechanisms and infrastructures to enable effective tapping of unexploited economic resources which would have ultimately translated in growth and development. Being one of the two liberal states in Africa in the 19th century, Liberia was unsure of western powers that were eager in expanding their colonies in Africa.The method adopted by The investors played a key role in boosting the rubber industry which in turn led to the generation of more income for the country.This meant that the revenue would increase significantly as the rubber industry expanded.